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These can have ranged from smoke and fire signals to advanced systems using semaphore codes and telescopes. China, where reports gathered by officials were eventually compiled as the Spring and Autumn Annals.
The world's first written news may have originated in eighth century B. The annals, whose compilation is attributed to Confucius, were available to a sizeable reading public and dealt with common news themes—though they straddle the line between news and history.
These laws stipulated how many times a banditoro was to repeat a proclamation (forty) and where in the city they were to read them.
These proclamations all used a standard format, beginning with an exordium—"The worshipful and most esteemed gentlemen of the Eight of Ward and Security of the city of Florence make it known, notify, and expressly command, to whosoever, of whatever status, rank, quality and condition"—and continuing with a statement (narratio), a request made upon the listeners (petitio), and the penalty to be exacted from those who would not comply (peroratio).
News conspicuously describes the world in the present or immediate past, even when the most important aspects of a news story have occurred long in the past—or are expected to occur in the future.
To make the news, an ongoing process must have some "peg", an event in time which anchors it to the present moment.
News is also transmitted in public gathering places, such as the Greek forum and the Roman baths.
Starting in England, coffeehouses served as important sites for the spread of news, even after telecommunications became widely available.
Whereas historians tend to view events as causally related manifestations of underlying processes, news stories tend to describe events in isolation, and to exclude discussion of the relationships between them.Perception of these values has changed greatly over time as sensationalized 'tabloid journalism' has risen in popularity.Michael Schudson has argued that, before the era of World War I and the concommitant rise of propaganda, journalists were not aware of the concept of bias in reporting, let alone actively correcting for it.These were carved in metal or stone and posted in public places.Specially sanctioned messengers have been recognized in Vietnamese culture, among the Khasi people in India, and in the Fox and Winnebago cultures of the American midwest.
The spread of news has always been linked to the communications networks in place to disseminate it.