Dating girect pa dating
The different sample pretreatments are also indicated in Table 2.
Vi-208 and Vi-207 produced hydroxyproline dates of 42,700 ± 1,600 and 43,900 ± 2,000 B. These ages are significantly older than any of the dates obtained previously for these specimens using the AG (gelatinized filtered collagen) and AF (ultrafiltered collagen) procedures, and this strongly suggests that noncollagenous high molecular weight contaminants, probably crosslinked to the collagen, were still present in the sample previously dated.
These dates suggest a co-occurrence of early Upper Paleolithic osseous artifacts, particularly split-based points, alongside the remains of Neanderthals is a result of postdepositional mixing, rather than an association between the two groups, although more work is required to show this definitively. Significant questions still remain regarding the precise nature of this transition, the humans responsible for the various transitional early Upper Paleolithic industries, the degree of overlap between Neanderthals and modern humans, and the timing of the disappearance of the former.
The European record for the transition retains its interest because it is the best-documented sequence for the disappearance of a hominin group available (3). Ascertaining the spatial attributes of Neanderthal and modern human populations in Europe is an area of active research, and a reliable chronology remains essential. (Vi-208: Ox A-X-2089-06), which indicated the previous dates were indeed too young.
The initial radiocarbon results were 29,080 ± 400 B. In addition to the Neanderthal remains, level G has yielded a small archaeological assemblage that contains techno-typologically Middle and Upper Paleolithic lithic artifacts plus several distinctively early Upper Paleolithic osseous points (12).
However, from the limited amounts of mitochondrial sequences, we were able to trace most of the observed variants to variations found in previously sequenced Neanderthal mitochondrial genomes ( Nine of the samples selected produced enough collagen (or hydroxyproline) to be dated by AMS.
We applied zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (Zoo MS) to find additional hominin remains.
We identified one bone that is Neanderthal, based on its mitochondrial DNA, and dated it directly to 46,200 ± 1,500 B. We also attempted to date six early Upper Paleolithic bone points from stratigraphic units G. in Europe witnessed the so-called biocultural transition from the Middle to early Upper Paleolithic, when incoming anatomically modern humans displaced Neanderthal groups across the continent (1, 2).
These included three previously dated Neanderthal specimens (Vi-207, Vi-208, and Vi-33.19), as well as a fourth Neanderthal bone (Vi-*28) discovered using zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (Zoo MS) screening.
In addition, to test the reality of the co-occurrence of earlier Upper Paleolithic bone and antler point artifacts with the Neanderthal remains, we selected six osseous points for dating (, Fig. To test collagen preservation, we took ∼3–5 mg bone powder, using tungsten carbide drills, and measured the %N content.
Radiocarbon dating of Neanderthal remains recovered from Vindija Cave (Croatia) initially revealed surprisingly recent results: 28,000–29,000 B. This implied the remains could represent a late-surviving, refugial Neanderthal population and suggested they could have been responsible for producing some of the early Upper Paleolithic artefacts more usually produced by anatomically modern humans.